As a project manager, you'll often be tasked with overseeing budgets and keeping an eye on each expense. Sometimes, you'll even have a hand in the initial scope and budget planning. Other times, you'll need to work within a predetermined budget, stretching it to accommodate your project's needs.
No matter the circumstance, effective project budgeting and project cost management are crucial for the success of any project. A well-planned project budget can help teams stay on track, avoid overspending, and ensure that resources are used efficiently.
In this guide, we'll look at how you can create and manage a project budget, tackling everyday challenges along the way.
What to consider when setting a project budget
As a project manager, setting and managing a project budget is one of the critical and challenging tasks you'll undertake. Many factors need to be considered when developing a budget, such as:
- Defined project scope: A clear scope helps determine the activities and resources needed, impacting the overall budget. Ensure the scope is well-defined and agreed upon by all stakeholders before setting the budget.
- Stakeholder expectations: Strive for a realistic budget that meets stakeholder expectations. Keep everyone informed about the budget's development, communicate any changes, and provide regular updates on the project's financial status.
- Resource requirements: Consider whether your project needs higher-skilled or additional resources to meet tight deadlines. Assess the time each person requires to achieve project deliverables.
- Project timelines: Evaluate the time needed to complete each task and its impact on the overall budget. Longer timelines may lead to higher costs, while shorter ones may require more resources, resulting in a higher budget.
- Risks and contingency: Identify potential risks and plan for contingencies. Include a contingency fund in the budget for unexpected project expenses. Also, keep this fund a secret, as it's your safety net to address issues when they arise.
- Communication requirements: Don't forget to factor in meeting or workshop time, communication within tools, or client communication that may exceed initial estimates in your communication plan. Allocate budget per resource for time spent on communication and focused deliverable work.
Managing the project budget in agile vs. waterfall
Agile and waterfall project management are the two popular methodologies used to manage projects. While both methods have their differences, setting and managing a project budget holds the same importance, regardless of the method used.
Let's take a quick look at some of the differences in setting and managing budgets within each methodology.
Agile project management
In agile project management, the budget focuses on delivering value to the customer through each sprint. The budget is split into smaller increments, allowing for flexibility and adjustments as the project advances. Regular monitoring and budget adjustments help adapt to project scope or requirements changes.
The main challenge lies in producing an accurate cost estimate (or cost baseline), as the iterative nature of the methodology may cause scope and requirements to change, impacting the budget.
Waterfall project management
In waterfall project management, the budget is based on the project's estimated cost and deliverables. The budget is divided into phases and milestones, each with a pre-set budget. The project manager oversees regular reporting and monitors progress against predetermined milestones and phases, ensuring the project remains on budget and schedule.
The primary challenge is delivering the project within the allocated budget, regardless of changes in project scope or requirements.
The key to success is to choose the methodology that best suits the project's needs and to ensure that the budget is realistic and meets stakeholders' expectations. Regular monitoring and communication of the budget status can ensure that the project is delivered within the allocated resources and to the satisfaction of all stakeholders, regardless of the methodology used.
Five tips to scale down a budget that won’t deliver
If you find yourself in a situation where the project budget isn't sufficient to cover the entire scope, don't worry—there are several steps you can take to address the issue and still ensure a successful outcome:
1. Identify cost-saving opportunities
Carefully examine the project to uncover ways to trim costs without compromising quality. For instance, you might consider using more cost-effective materials, streamlining processes, or optimizing the size of your team to save resources while maintaining efficiency.
2. Prioritize requirements
Assess each requirement based on its importance and potential impact on the project's success. Ensure all requirements are essential and remove any that aren't crucial to the project. This way, you can concentrate on delivering the most critical requirements within the allocated budget.
3. Re-evaluate the timeline
Explore whether delivering the project in phases rather than all at once is feasible. Adopting a phased approach can help spread costs over time, reducing immediate expenses while still working towards the project's ultimate goals.
4. Communicate with stakeholders
Maintain open and honest communication about budget constraints. By discussing the situation early on and presenting options for delivering the project within the given budget, you'll allow stakeholders to adjust their expectations, consider compromises, or even provide additional funding if they understand your constraints.
5. Consider alternative solutions
Look into other cost-effective options, such as outsourcing specific project tasks or using off-the-shelf software instead of developing custom solutions. These alternatives may help you reduce costs while still meeting project objectives. Additionally, discuss creating a minimum viable product (MVP) with your client as an initial step. An MVP can provide a starting point for your project and can be built upon as more resources become available.
What do you do when a project goes over budget?
Despite taking precautions, cost overruns can still occur, but as the budget owner, it's crucial to act quickly and efficiently to address the situation.
Here are some tips to help you navigate a plan to get back on track:
- Identify the root cause: What is the root cause of the budget overrun? Was it due to scope creep, unforeseen expenses, poor estimating, or other factors? Understanding the root cause first is needed to help explain and address the issue to the client.
- Communicate with stakeholders: Communicate about the budget overage, the root cause, and the steps that will be taken to address the situation. This includes the project sponsor, project team, and other stakeholders impacted by the budget overage. Keeping it to yourself in hopes it will work itself out puts the trust in the relationship at risk.
- Prioritize remaining work: Base this on its importance and potential impact on the project's success. Focus on delivering the most critical requirements within the remaining budget. Work with your stakeholders and team directly to build out this plan.
- Adjust the budget: Adjust the budget to reflect the new situation. This may involve reducing the scope, increasing the budget, or finding other ways to address the budget overage.
With Float, you have a 360-degree view of your project and company resources, making it easier to identify areas where you can streamline tasks and assignments.
For example, suppose you need to add more resources to a particular project. In that case, Float provides you with a full view of the range of talent within your organization, their skills, and their available time. This feature is handy when you need to quickly identify who is available to assist with a particular task or project phase.
Float also allows you to view your entire project at a high level or focus on a particular phase to determine what tasks can be adjusted or reassigned to solve any unexpected issues that arise. This can be invaluable when navigating unforeseen problems that threaten to derail a project's budget.
By utilizing Float, project managers can keep a close eye on the budget and actual cost and adjust as needed to ensure that the project stays within budgetary constraints.
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Real-life example: What's managing a project budget really like?
Project budget management is challenging, especially when unexpected issues and expenses arise. As a digital project manager, I've faced several situations where keeping the project within budget seemed like an uphill battle.
One project that comes to mind is developing a new app for a significant client. The client had ambitious goals, and the development team had to work quickly to deliver on those goals. Despite spending several weeks planning and developing a detailed project plan and budget, I was still concerned that unexpected expenses would arise.
Unfortunately, my fears were realized when the development team encountered several unexpected roadblocks that threatened to derail the project and blow the budget. Technical difficulties required additional work hours to resolve, and miscommunications with the client caused delays and confusion.
As the project manager, I knew I had to act quickly. I worked closely with the development team to identify areas where we could reduce costs without compromising the quality of the work. We looked for ways to streamline workflows, automate processes, and eliminate unnecessary steps to reduce the time and resources required.
Despite our best efforts, however, the project still went over budget. I knew I had to have a challenging conversation with the client, so I prepared a detailed report outlining the additional funding required, the underlying reasons, and the steps we had taken to keep costs under control. To my surprise, the client understood and appreciated my report's transparency and honesty. We worked together to identify ways to reduce costs in future project phases.
Meeting the challenge of managing project budgets
Managing a project budget can be daunting, but it's not impossible.
By understanding the root causes of potential overages and involving your team and clients in the planning process, you can proactively avoid unexpected issues and stay within budget constraints. Regular communication with your team and clients about the state of the budget is crucial for building trust and avoiding surprises down the line. Transparency along the way can also foster a more collaborative environment, where all parties work together to find solutions to any budget overages that may occur.
Remember to identify each potential project risk upfront and prioritize requirements based on their impact on the project's success. Utilize project planning tools like Float to get a full view of project phases, resources, and tasks and adjust the budget as needed.
Ultimately, managing a project budget requires a combination of skill, attention to detail, and a willingness to be flexible. With the right mindset and approach, you can successfully navigate the budgeting process and deliver a project that meets the expectations of everyone involved.